Table 2

Procedure time (needle in hand to balloon insufflation)

Expert levelTime needed (median in minutes:seconds) (IQR)P values
Resident3:24 (3:06–4:42)0.008*
Surgeon/consultant2:33 (2:05–2:58)0.002†
Instructor1:09 (0:50–1:23)0.001‡
  • *Resident vs consultant.

  • †Consultant vs instructor.

  • ‡Resident vs instructor.