Article Text

Civilian and military doctors’ knowledge of tranexamic acid (TXA) use in major trauma: a comparison study
  1. Jonathan Blair Thomas Herron1,
  2. R French2 and
  3. A D Gilliam2
  1. 1 Intensive Care, Defence Medical Group (DMG) North, Middlesbrough, UK
  2. 2 General Surgery, County Durham and Darlington NHS Foundation Trust, Darlington, UK
  1. Correspondence to Jonathan Blair Thomas Herron, Intensive Care, MDHU North, Middlesbrough TS4 3BW, UK; herronjonny{at}


Introduction Tranexamic acid (TXA) administration within the recommended time of 3 hours has been demonstrated to improve outcomes following trauma. The aim of this study was to identify potential knowledge gaps in the administration of TXA in order to target further educational training in those doctors responsible for the management of acute trauma.

Methods 104 military and 852 civilian doctors were invited to complete a four-item web-based questionnaire pertaining to the indications, dose, side effects and evidence base for TXA administration in trauma. Doctors of all grades and surgical specialties including emergency trainees and anaesthetics were surveyed.

Results 65 military and 460 civilian doctors responded with a response rate of 62% and 54%, respectively. Responses were required for every question to allow progression and submission. 93% of military doctors knew the initial dose of TXA compared with 34% of civilian doctors. The Clinical randomisation of an Antifibrinolytic in Significant Haemorrhage (CRASH) 2 trial was known to 91% of military doctors compared with 24% of civilian doctors. The optimal time for delivery of TXA in under 3 hours was correctly identified by 91% of military doctors compared with 10% by civilian doctors.

Discussion Military doctors are more familiar with TXA and its side effect profile. Given the potential impact of TXA on patient outcome and the findings of this study, further education of all doctors is recommended including dose, timing and potential side effects.

  • tranexamic acid
  • trauma management

Statistics from


  • Contributors JBTH was the main author but all authors contributed to data collection, design of the paper, analysis and write-up and revision.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement The data is completely anonomysed and is available upon request to any persons approved by the MOD to view such data.

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