Table 2

Recent surveys (1999–2014) on creatine use by military personnel

StudySubjectsResponse rate (%)Usage (%)
Arsenault and Kennedy24Army Special ForcesMen22159918
McGraw et al25Army RangersMen367NK19
Sheppard et al26General ArmyMen and women1334029
Deuster et al27Army RangersMen3810013
Thomasos28Air Force enlisted and officersMen and women10 985NKRated 1st*
French29National Guard-ReserveMen and women376 606
Jaghab30Army physiciansMen and women5731533
Johnson et al31Army RangersMen2944046
Lieberman et al32General ArmyMen and women484805
Army RangersMen768NK19
Special ForcesMen152NK16
Young and Stephens33MarinesMen3236526
Lieberman et al34Active-duty Army personnelMen and women9908042
Boos et al35Deployed military personnelMen and women10176613
Boos et al36Deployed servicemenMen and women875834
Casey et al37Active-duty Army personnelMen and women3168NK38
  • *Supplements ranked according to most often used; Usage, number of creatine users among supplement users.

  • NK, not known.